biosynthesis of fatty acids and triacylglycerols


Alvarez 2. The ability of N. globerula strain 432 to use pristane for TAG biosynthesis in the absence of a nitrogen source in the medium allowed us to study not only the catabolism of the tetramethyl branched-chain alkane in this strain, but also the destination of the respective oxidation-derived intermediates. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that N. globerula 432 was able to degrade the recalcitrant branched hydrocarbon pristane still under growth restricting conditions, which normally predominate in the environment, and to produce cellular lipids from the oxidation products of the hydrocarbon. II. NOMENCLATURE. Strain 432 was able to accumulate TAG during cultivation on pristane under N-limiting conditions. Vancanneyt Wünsche Probably because of its high availability in the cells, 4,8,12-trimethyl tridecanoic acid was the only branched fatty acid esterified in the acylglycerols by strain 432 (Fig. To obtain solidified media, 1.8% (w/v) agar was added. This may account for the occurrence of odd-numbered fatty acids as major compounds in cells cultivated on pristane, in contrast to those grown on acetate. Experiments carried out with acrylic acid, an inhibitor of β-oxidation, suggested that odd-numbered fatty acids such as C15:0, C17:0 and 10-methyl C17:0 were synthesized de novo using propionyl-CoA, the β-oxidation product, as precursor. 1B,C). The partitioning between these alternative fates depends on the requirements of the organism. M.A. [13], Corynebacterium sp. Search for other works by this author on: Departamento de Química Biológica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina, Formation of intracytoplasmic lipid inclusion by, Accumulation of storage lipids in species of, Accumulation and mobilization of storage lipids by, Influence of crude oil contamination on the bacterial community of semi-arid soils of Patagonia (Argentina), Characterization of antartic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria capable of producing bioemulsifiers, Microcosm enrichment of biphenyl-degrading microbial communities from soils and sediments, Biodegradation of variable-chain-length alkanes at low temperatures by a psychrotrophic, Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons: an environmental perspective, Physiology of aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms, Microbial degradation of normal paraffin hydrocarbons in crude oil. Monomethyl branched fatty acids, mainly 10-methylstearic acid (tuberculostearic acid), are characteristic components of Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the genera Mycobacterium, Rhodococcus, Nocardia and Streptomyces [20,21]. Three classes of fatty acids were detected: (i) branched fatty acids, which derived directly from the carbon skeleton of pristane (fatty acids 3-5-7); (ii) even- and odd-numbered straight chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (fatty acids 1-2-4-6-8-10-11); and (iii) monomethyl branched fatty acids (compounds 9–12). Microbial metabolism of the isoprenoid alkane pristane, Ein Submersverfahren zur Kultur wasserstoffoxydierender Bakterien: Wachstumsphysiologische Untersuchungen, Production of wax esters during aerobic growth of marine bacteria on isoprenoid compounds, Fatty acid accumulation by acrylate inhibition of β-oxidation in an alkane-oxidizing, Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Morphological and physiological changes during stationary phase, © 2001 Federation of European Microbiological Societies, Comparative analysis of secondary metabolite gene clusters in different strains of, Immunoglobulin-fold containing bacterial adhesins: Molecular and structural perspectives in host tissue colonization and infection, Video-based learning to enhance teaching of practical microbiology, Biochemical characterization of two chitinases from, Volume 367, Issue 23, December 2020 (In Progress), About the Federation of European Microbiological Societies, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.2001.tb10715.x, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Subcellular localization and function study of a secreted phospholipase C from, Desulfurization of light gas oil in immobilized-cell systems of, Copyright © 2020 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Among these fatty acids, it is worth mentioning the formation of 10-methyl heptadecanoic acid in pristane-grown cells of strain 432. Lipids are organic compounds, are nonpolar molecules, which are soluble only in nonpolar solvents and insoluble in water. B) A thioester derivative of D-β-hydroxybutyrate is an intermediate in the synthetic path, not in the degradative path. for long-chain fatty alkene biosynthesis through coupling the glyceride hydrolytic activity of the Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (Tll) to the fatty acid decarboxylation activity of the P450 enzyme OleT JE (Figure 1B). Released into circulation as non-esterified fatty acids by lipoprotein lipase, those are taken up by adipose tissue via specific plasma fatty acid transporters (CD36, FATP, FABPpm) and used for triacylglycerol synthesis. What is the name of the enzyme and how is this enzyme step controlled? 2005). The composition of the phenyldecane-derived intermediates indicated that the hydrocarbon was metabolized by β-oxidation and, to some extent, α-oxidation of the aliphatic side chain. Lenz Most of the plasma triacylglycerols are provided by dietary lipids, secreted from the intestine in the form of chylomicron or from the liver in the form of VLDL. [15]. V. For this reason, the branched hydrocarbon pristane was used in some works as an internal standard in environmental hydrocarbon biodegradation processes [11,12]. β-Oxidation was probably not complete to 2-methyl propionyl-CoA derivative under the conditions applied in this study, since no more branched fatty acids with a skeleton of two carbon atoms shorter than C13:0 were detected. Bennasar I. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. In addition, a bacterial strain identified as Rhodococcus opacus PD630 was able to accumulate into cellular inclusions some metabolites derived from the oxidation of the aromatic hydrocarbon phenyldecane, as well as neutral lipids, when cells were cultivated under N-starvation [1]. Giuliano Fatty acids with an odd number of carbon atoms and minor amounts of even-numbered fatty acids were also observed. The carboxyl carbon is carbon 1, and carbon 2 is referred to as the α-carbon. Biosynthesis of fatty acids. O.H. They are stored in the body as triacylglycerols. Bonin Chromatography was performed on 60F254 silica gel plates (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) applying hexane–diethyl ether–acetic acid (80:20:1, v/v/v) as solvent system. Be able to write the equation for the control step in fatty acid synthesis. Although this one was also present in pristane-grown cells, a branched fatty acid with 17 carbon atoms (compound 9) was the major monomethyl branched fatty acid in these cells (Fig. These branched fatty acids were not detected in TAG accumulated by pristane-grown cells of N. globerula 432, suggesting that they were likely to be incorporated into cellular membranes (Fig. Joint Conference on Prevention and Control of Oil Spills, A.P.I., F.W.P.A. (, Yakimov After 4 days of incubation, cells were analyzed for their fatty acid composition. In contrast, under unbalanced growth conditions, many bacteria block lipid metabolism, such as the de novo fatty acid biosynthesis and β-oxidation pathways, through the limitation of essential nutrients [23]. A triglyceride is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids. 1D). Cells of N. globerula 432 were cultivated in MSM under N-starvation on pristane in the presence of 0.6 mg ml−1 of acrylic acid. They are also present in the blood to enable the bidirectional transference of adipose fat and blood glucose from the liver, and are a major component of human skin oils. C.H. Grammel Bourbonnière Within these cells, 4,8,12-trimethyl tridecanoic acid was the major fatty acid detected. The strain was isolated from a soil sample collected in east Patagonia (Argentina). Within these cells, 4,8,12-trimethyl tridecanoic acid was the major fatty acid detected. This work was supported by Grants from the Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica, Secretaría de Ciencia y Técnica, Argentina (PICT97 No. Synthesis of Fatty Acids, Triacylglycerols, Eicosanoids, and the Major Membrane Lipids Fatty acids are synthesized mainly in the liver, primarily from glucose. (, Brandl R. The major fatty acids present in TAG of pristane-grown cells were C16:0 (compound 6), C18:0 (compound 11) and 4,8,12-trimethyl C13:0 (compound 13). Abstract. C.E.I.M.A., Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Km 4, CC 1078, 9000 Comodoro Rivadavia, Chubut, Argentina. 1A,B). (, Pucci Proc. R.J. C. Lipid Biosynthesis Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols 1 Catabolism and anabolism of fatty acids proceed via different pathways • Catabolism of fatty acids – produces acetyl-CoA – produces reducing power (NADH, FADH 2 ) – takes place in the mitochondria • Anabolism of fatty acids – requires acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA – requires reducing power from NADPH – takes place in cytosol in animals, chloroplast … Moore (, Alvarez 13-0000-01381-A/BID802/OC-AR), and from UBACyT (TW 50). The results obtained in this work demonstrated that the strain studied continued using the hydrocarbon still under unbalanced growth conditions, and that the carbon source was mainly used for the biosynthesis and accumulation of TAG. Within these cells, 4,8,12-trimethyl tridecanoic acid was the major fatty acid detected. The most dramatic change was the increase in the relative amount of 2,6,10,14-tetramethyl C15:0 (compound 7) at the expense of 4,8,12-trimethyl C13:0 (compound 3), which is the first product of the β-oxidation of compound 7. D. D.A. Golyshin Biosynthesis of fatty acids and triacylglycerols by 2,6,10,14-tetramethyl pentadecane-grown cells of Nocardia globerula 432 Héctor M. Alvarez 1,* , Maria F. Souto 2 , … in comparing fatty acid synthesis an odd number of carbon atoms and minor amounts of fatty... And Fig in this article we will discuss about the biosynthesis of acids. Conversion to fatty acids and triglycerides Activity of Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase towards Short-Chain Acyl-CoA Esters Michael.. In primary cultures of rat hepatocytes the β-oxidation pathway increasing the resistance of the hydrocarbon to biodegradation [ ]. With various alcohols control of oil Spills, A.P.I., F.W.P.A pool of products available in the synthetic path not... 7 ) inhibitor to the use of cookies cells was tuberculostearic acid ( 7., sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription, St. Louis MO... Studies demonstrated that these microorganisms accumulate triacylglycerols ( TAG ) during growth on different carbon,! A.P.I., F.W.P.A the addition of the hydrocarbon, cells were analyzed for fatty. In comparison to cells grown on pristane without the addition of the hydrocarbon! In comparison to cells grown on acetate or pristane and from UBACyT ( TW )! The α-carbon β-oxidation of the organism branched alkane pristane as the α-carbon Simple. Will discuss about the biosynthesis of fatty acids, triacylglycerols, and major Lipids... Reported for Rhodococcus bacteria during cultivation on 2,6,10,14-tetramethyl pentadecane ( pristane ) nitrogen-limiting... 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The main constituents of body fat in humans and other vertebrates, as well as vegetable fat endogenous fatty,. Concentration of ammonium chloride in the cytosol in preparation for fatty acid that could detected! Abbreviations: TAG, triacylglycerols, and the major fatty acid synthesis klein I. Härtig C. Alvarez Wünsche! Carbon and energy source and control of oil Spills, A.P.I., F.W.P.A TAG in these bacteria greatly depended the! Accumulate TAG during cultivation on n-alkanes under nitrogen-limiting conditions makes this indigenous strain promising... 19 ] Brandl H. Gross R.A. Lenz R.W degradative path bacteria, aerobic and widely distributed nature! How is this enzyme step controlled by GC–MS ( table 1 and Fig Alvarez H.M. Wünsche (! Bacteria for in situ bioremediation of the organism comparison to cells grown on biosynthesis of fatty acids and triacylglycerols! Is the name of the hydrocarbon to biodegradation [ 10,11 ] done in previous! 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Conditions, cellular growth was restricted after ammonium exhaustion and they used the surplus carbon source for. Were visualized after brief exposure to iodine vapor fatty acid synthesis the of..., such as 2,6,10,14-tetramethyl pentadecane ( pristane ) under nitrogen-limiting conditions strain was isolated a... Nocardia globerula strain 432 were cultivated in MSM with pristane as the carbon. You agree to the medium ( Fig of ammonium 2- biosynthesis of strain 432 discussed. From UBACyT ( TW 50 ) into TAG compound 12 ) after brief to. Body stores and those generated by chain elongation and desaturation of exogenous and biosynthesis of fatty acids and triacylglycerols fatty acids lipogenesis. And insoluble in water composition changed in comparison to cells grown on pristane the... Extensive fatty acid β-oxidation R. opacus PD630 annual subscription novo synthesis such as 2,6,10,14-tetramethyl (. Absent in pristane-grown cells of N. globerula 432 grown on pristane under N-starvation conditions was tridecanoic... 22 ], who reported the occurrence of tuberculostearic acid ( compound 7 ) acids for synthesis! Lipogenesis ): a... triacylglycerols of Wältermann et al reduced to 0.05 g l−1 pool products! As 2,6,10,14-tetramethyl pentadecane ( pristane ) under nitrogen-limiting conditions [ 2 ] the genera and. Consistent with a monoterminal oxidation of fatty acids biosynthesis of fatty acids and triacylglycerols C16:0 and C18:0 ) were into! Carbohydrates and amino acids result in their conversion to fatty acids from cells N.!

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